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Quality Management Dictionary- 2

Quality Management Dictionary- 2

P Control Chart

A control chart that determines the stability of a process by finding what percentage of total units in a sample are defective.

Pareto chart

A bar chart that orders data from the most frequent to the least frequent, allowing the analyst to determine the most important factor in a given situation or process.

Pareto principle

The idea that a few root problems are responsible for the large majority of consequences. The Pareto principle is derived from the work of Vilfredo Pareto, a turn-of-the-century
Italian economist who studied the distributions of wealth in different countries. He concluded that a fairly consistent minority about 20% of people controlled the large majority about 80% of a society's wealth.
This same distribution has been observed in other areas and has been termed the Pareto principle. It is defined by
J.M. Juran as the idea that 80% of all effects are produced by only 20% of the possible causes.


Japanese approach to mistake proofing. Primarily activities for front line employees empowered to make changes to their work processes to enhance accuracy, safety, and efficiency.


The closeness of two or more measurements to each other. Using the example above, if you weigh a given substance five times, and get 3.2 kg each time, then your measurement is very precise.

Predictive Maintenance

Maintenance performed on equipment just prior to the predicted breakdown of that equipment.

Preventive Action

Action(s) designed to prevent the occurrence of non-conformances, or nonconformities.

Preventive Maintenance

Maintenance performed on equipment, with the intent on prolonging equipment life and/or preventing breakdown and malfunction.

Problem Solving

The process of solving problems; the isolation and control of those conditions which generate or facilitate the creation of undesirable symptoms.


A particular method of doing something, generally involving a number of steps or operations. (2) A series of actions that lead to a desired result; converting inputs into outputs. (3) A collection of activities that together produce a usable product or service by applying resources from one or more functional areas. (4) Combination of people, equipment, materials, methods, and environment that produce output.

Process Control

Operations with a built in finding and adjusting step to keep a product or service in conformance with the specifications.

Project Management

the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to
achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.

Pull System

a lean manufacturing strategy used to reduce waste in the production process. In this type of system, components used in the manufacturing process are only replaced once they have been consumed so companies only make enough products to meet customer demand.


"Quality is conformance to specifications. "British Defence Industries Quality Assurance Panel
"Quality is conformance to requirements." Philip Crosby "Quality is fitness for purpose." Dr Juran "Quality
is synonymous with customer needs and expectations." R J Mortiboys "Quality is a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and suited to the market. "Dr Edward Deming "Quality is meeting the (stated) requirements of the customer- now and in the future." Mike Robinson "Quality is the total composite product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacturing and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectations by the customer." Armand
Feigenbaum "Totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs." ISO 8402 : 1994. Quality The ability of a product, or service, to meet customer requirements, both stated and unstated

Quality assurance

The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled

Quality Audit

A systematic and independent examination to determine quality related activities are implemented effectively and comply with the quality systems and/or quality standards.

Quality circles

In Japan, groups of employees formed for the study of and sharing information regarding quality issues and theory.

Quality Control

The process by which actual product or service performance is measured and compared with a standard, and action is taken to eliminate any non-conformances

Quality Council

A group of senior management within given operational units who plan, implement, facilitate, and monitor the QUALITY PROCESS.

Quality improvement

A systematic approach to the processes of work that looks to remove waste, loss, rework, frustration, etc. in order to make the processes of work more effective, efficient, and appropriate.

Quality Management

is the act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence. This includes the determination of a quality policy, creating and implementing quality planning and assurance, and quality control and quality improvement.

Quality Manual

a document that states the company's intentions for operating the processes within the quality management system. It can include policies for all areas of the business that affect your ability to make high quality products and meet your customers' and ISO's requirements.

Quality Policy

a document developed by management to express the directive of the top management with respect to quality. Quality policy management is a strategic item.

Quality System

Organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources required to implement quality management.

Random Sampling

The process of selecting units for a sample of size, so that all units have an equal chance of being selected as the sample.


Action taken on non-conforming product that changes the classification, or category of the product for use in alternative applications. Cannot be done without customer approval/direction.


The probability of a product or service successfully doing its job under given conditions.

Representative Sample

A sample which accurately reflects a specific condition or set of conditions within the universe.


those items necessary for a team to understand a problem and implement solutions; also, the time to work on solutions, access to manufacturing engineers, etc.


A process or meeting during which a work product or set of work products, is presented to project personnel, managers, users, customers, or other interested parties for comment or approval.
Types include code review, design review, formal qualification review, requirements review, test readiness review...


Action taken on non-conforming product so that it will meet the specified requirements


1- the possibility of loss, injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance; a chance or situation involving such a possibility-2- is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one objective

Risk assessment

A comprehensive evaluation of the risk and its associated impact.

Root Cause Analysis

Using one or more various tools to determine the root cause of a specific failure.


Freedom from those conditions that can cause death, injury, occupational illness, or damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment.


a representative part or a single item from a larger whole or group especially when presented for inspection or shown as evidence of quality

Scatter Diagram

1-show the pattern of relationship between two variables that are thought to be related.
For example is their a relationship between out side temperature and cases of the common cold? As temperatures drop, do colds increase. The closer the points hug a diagonal line the more closely there is
a one to one relationship. 2- A tool that studies the possible relationship between two variables expressed on the x- axis and y-axis of a graph. The direction and density of the points plotted will indicate various relationships or a lack of any relationship between the variables.

Seven tools of quality

Quality improvement tools that include the histogram, Pareto chart, check sheet, control chart, cause-and-effect diagram, flowchart, and scatter diagram.


a statistical unit of measure which reflects process capability. The sigma scale of measure is perfectly correlated to such characteristics as defects per unit, parts per million defective, and the probability of a failure/error.

Six Sigma

Structured application of the tools and techniques of Total Quality Management on a Project Basis to achieve strategic business results


Ability to perform a task or function.


Statistical Process Control The application of statistical methods to analyze data, study and monitor process capability and performance. Use of control charts to monitor process performance.


an engineering or design requirement that must be met in order to produce a satisfactory product.

Spider Diagram

A visual reporting tool for the performance of a number of indicators. Also known as a "radar chart" this tool makes visible the gaps between the current and desired performance.


Statistical Quality Control: The application of statistical techniques to measure variation in materials, parts, components, and products. The process of maintaining acceptable levels of product quality by using statistical techniques.
Stable Process A process from which all special causes of variation have been eliminated and only common causes remain.

Standard Deviation

A statistical index of variability which describes the spread.


Anyone whose output (materials, information, service, etc.) becomes an input to another person or group in a process of work. A supplier can be external or internal to the organization.

Surveillance Audit

are the ongoing periodic review of an organisation's quality management system, by a third party registrar


combination of several components or pieces of equipment integrated to perform a specific function.

Technical Data Sheet TDS

a document that summarizes the performance and other technical characteristics of a product, machine, component, material, a subsystem or software in sufficient detail that allows design engineer to understand the role of the component in the overall system.


An activity in which a system or component is executed under specified conditions, the results are observed or recorded and an evaluation is made of some aspect of the system or component.


The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test
criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM is management and control activities based on the leadership of top management and based on the involvement of all employees and all departments from planning and development to sales and service. These management and control activities focus on quality assurance by which those qualities which satisfy the customer are built into products and services during the above processes and then offered to consumers.


The ability to trace a product back through the process , and identify all sub-processes, components, and ?quipment that were involved in its manufacture.

Transition Period

Time when an organization is moving away from an old way of thinking to the new way.

Tree diagram

A chart used to break any task, goal, or category into increasingly detailed levels of information. Family trees are the classic example of a tree diagram.


Theory of Inventive Problem Solving' Developed in 1946 by soviet inventor Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues.

Type I error

Rejecting something that is acceptable. Also known as an alpha error.

Type II error

Accepting something that should have been rejected. Also known as beta error

u chart

A control chart showing the count of defects per unit in a series of random samples.


A horizontal line on a control chart (usually dotted) which represents the upper limits of process capability.


The ease with which a user can operate, prepare inputs for, and interpret of a system or component.

User's guide

Documentation that describes how to use a functional unit, and that may include description of the rights and responsibilities of the user, the owner, and the supplier of the unit.


is the process of checking whether the specification captures the customer's needs

Value Added Activity

An activity in a process that adds value to an output product or service, that is, the activity merits the cost of the resources it consumes in production.

Value Stream Mapping

a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer with reduced lean wastes as compared to current map

Variable Cost

A cost element that varies directly with the amount of product or service produced by an activity. Variable costs go to zero if the activity stops.


A measure of deviation from the mean in a sample or population.


Change in the output or result of a process. Variation can be caused by common causes, special causes, tampering.


is the process of checking that the product meets the specification

Vision Statement

An aspirational description of what an organization would like to achieve or accomplish in the mid-term or long- term future. It is intended to serves as a clear guide for choosing current and future courses of action.

Voice of the Customer

Customer feedback both positive and negative including likes, dislikes, problems and suggestions.

Voice of the Process

Statistical data that is feedback to the people in the process to make decisions about the process stability and/or capability as a tool for continuous improvement


Written authorization to use or release a quantity of material, components, or stores already manufactured but not conforming to the specified requirements.

Zero defects

Philip Crosby's recommended performance standard that leaves no doubt regarding the goal of total quality. Crosby's theory holds that people can continually move closer to this goal by committing themselves to their work and the improvement process

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