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Supply Chain Manager: Interview questions and answers

Supply Chain Manager: Interview questions and answers
Supply chain management is a critical function for many businesses, and as such, it’s important to hire the right people for this role. If you’re interviewing for a supply chain manager position, you can expect to be asked a variety of questions about your experience, skills, and knowledge of the industry.
Here is a list of 70 questions and answers you may need for interview preparation and training.

1. Why Are You Interested In This Role?

I’d want to work for your company since I’ve been following you for a long and know that your operations are always of the highest quality. You have a good reputation for treating your employees properly, and you constantly have big plans, which I like. A Supply Chain Manager has a lot of responsibilities that demand a lot of assistance, strategic leadership, and absolute dedication to the supply chain process. After researching your company before applying, I am sure that all these things will occur if I am hired as your Supply Chain Manager. I’m looking for a long-term position as a Supply Chain Manager with the same company where I can build a strong team, develop strong relationships with distributors and suppliers, and develop a sustainable and prosperous supply chain process that will help the company move forward and achieve its goals and objectives.

2. What Are The Roles Of A Supply Chain Manager?

A supply chain manager is responsible for overseeing and controlling a company’s supply chain and logistics activities. The primary goal of all of this is to guarantee that the firm runs smoothly and profitably. They also play an essential role in establishing and maintaining positive relationships with distributors and suppliers. Mainly, their roles include:
Managing one or more inventory distribution points.
Managing a significant number of personnel in various positions.
Ensuring that items are received and delivered on time.
Keeping track of inventories and finances.
Mapping out freight routes
Coordinating with product suppliers and distributors.

3. What Are The Qualities That A Supply Chain Manager Needs To Be Successful?

A successful supply chain employee, in my opinion, should have excellent customer service and communication skills. I utilized these abilities in my former job when I had to meet and bargain with suppliers daily. I maintained a professional and respectful demeanor with them, which resulted in an excellent and trustworthy working relationship.
A good supply chain manager should have strong arithmetic skills, analytic abilities, and an understanding of the demand and supply concept. They should also use data to monitor orders, sales patterns, shipping, and strategies to increase revenues and decrease losses. In addition to project management abilities, a supply chain manager should understand how to employ technology to speed up supply.
Oversee cross-functional teams from several departments.
Develop and maintain asset management procedures.
Appropriate IT skills for inventory and budget tracking.
Establish a set of standardized training methods.
Problem-solving and analytical abilities.

4. What is supply chain management?

This is a basic definitive question that employers may ask to ensure you can describe supply chain management to customers or other employees. Interviewers are typically looking for a simple answer that clearly defines the term in a way that's easy to understand.
Example: "Supply chain management is the management and planning of all supply chain activities that take place in a business. This can include product development, logistics, sourcing and producing."

5. What would you do if your warehouse ran out of stock?

Interviewers are interested in learning your process for situations where the business may run significantly low on its available products. Explain how you'll calmly and logically handle the decrease in stock.
Example: "If we ran out of stock on any of our products, I'd first identify the shortage of products or materials and determine the amount we have left, if any. I'd then meet with the original supplier to see if we can get a rush order of supplies."

6. Which skills are needed to be successful in supply chain management?

Hiring managers often use this question to determine if the skills you mention align with what they believe a candidate needs to be successful in the role. Think about the skills you hold that make you a great candidate and how they'll benefit the company.
Example: "I believe a great supply chain employee should have great customer service and communication abilities. I used these skills in my previous role when I regularly met and negotiated with suppliers. I remained professional and courteous, which resulted in a strong, dependable relationship with them."

7. Are you updated on current supply chain management trends?

Many employers want to hire supply chain management team members who stay updated on current technology trends in the industry to stay ahead of the competition and adopt innovative solutions. Share any supply chain technologies you've recently discovered and how they could benefit the company.
Example: "One trend I recently read about was a transport management software that used computerized tracking systems to integrate every operation from a single panel. You can operate this panel from a mobile device to organize inventory levels, oversee distributions and manage shipping from anywhere, which could drastically improve efficiency levels."

8. What Major Challenges Did You Face During Your Last Role? How Did You Manage Them?

The fundamental challenges of launching a new product financial availability, customer desires, political agendas, and important comprehensive sourcing. These bothered me, so I conducted an extensive study and devised new exams that were updated regularly. I was able to identify and manage risks due to the evaluations. It also assisted in the resolution of substantial supply chain bottlenecks, and we were back on our feet in no time.

9. Describe Your Daily Routine As A Supply Chain Manager?

I am in charge of tactical and strategic buying, planning, inventory management, material needs, warehousing, and order integration. I also do research and choose an effective mode of transportation that will cut expenses while ensuring earnings. I review supplier communications, monitor, and handle daily delivery issues, and review and approve papers.

10. Describe Briefly About Your Experience?

I’ve been doing something to keep myself occupied and make money since my first paper route at ten. It was plainly about making some spending money back then. I didn’t know that I was just getting started on figuring out what I wanted to accomplish and where I fit into the big picture. In my final two summers of high school, I worked as a junior computer technician. It was here that I found my passions and what I wanted to achieve with my life. I went to college to study computer science and have worked in the technology field.
I have a supply chain degree and have worked as a supply manager for over 10 years. I am well-versed in all aspects of the supply chain and am up to date on current trends. Because supply chain management is my area of expertise, I like any task I take on in this industry. I feel I am the appropriate fit for your organization because of my supply chain experience.

11. Do you have experience collaborating with overseas suppliers?

Suppliers may be located across the world, so employers may expect you to have a process in place for staying in touch with them. Describe your strategy for staying connected with suppliers.
Example: "In my previous position, I worked directly with Japanese suppliers to obtain materials for our best-selling product. We communicated regularly using a chat management software that allowed the supplier to update us on the progress they made on creating and shipping our supplies."

12. How do you prepare for an upcoming holiday season?

The busiest time of year for many companies is usually the holidays, which is when they'll receive a large influx of sales in a short time. Hiring managers usually look for employees who plan for this mass increase in sales. Detail this plan in your answer.
Example: "I'll review the sales numbers from past holiday seasons and will order additional supplies and materials for items that were high in demand. I'll then contact our transportation teams to give them a breakdown of what to expect in terms of shipment and delivery during the upcoming months."

13. What supply chain management software have you used?

Employers expect you to have sound knowledge of common software tools to record updates on products' manufacturing and delivery progress. Your answer should explain how you use communication tools to connect with employees, delivery drivers, manufacturers and suppliers.
Example: "At my previous company, I found and adapted a software system that allowed us to monitor inventory and supply levels, oversee transportation locations and collaborate effectively with clients. Implementing this software tool increased our efficiency levels by 20%."

14. What Kind Of Strategies And Mindset Is Required For This Role?

A supply chain manager must be well-versed in planning and management. They should design the whole supply chain process while putting clients first. Suppliers, logistics providers, warehousing facilities, and distributors should all be connected via the supply chain. This network should be focused on attaining the same aims and objectives. It should also guarantee that it meets the demands of consumers while also maximizing earnings for the company.
Delegating duty and power has proven to be critical in my experience. Low expectations or ego should not hold back a team’s ability to develop and flourish as individuals and units.
Building a team is something I believe in. Each team member should understand their function, see where they fit in, and trust one another. Real-time input is significant to me. You should be aware of any mistakes you make right away. The more extended feedback is delayed in time, regardless of whether it is correct or incorrect, the less valuable it is.

15. What Is The Biggest Challenge You Foresee In This Job?

Profit margins in the supply chain are continuously under pressure due to rising costs in many supply chain elements. The cost of living is rising in a variety of industries, including:
Fuel prices are rising, making it more expensive to carry products by air, sea, or road.
Expenses for transport, storage, and product management have increased due to complicated international logistics.
High commodity prices also raise the cost of raw materials.

16. What will be the first thing you do, if we hire you for this job?

The answer differs when you apply for a job internally (progressing from a position of a logistics manager, or other similar job), and externally.
If you apply internally, you probably already have a good knowledge of each link in the supply chain, and have an idea of how to manage them and possibly improve the efficiency.
If you apply externally, however, your first step should be getting to know the people in the company, and the supply chain, in great detail. This and only this will allow you to manage it effectively, and to come up with ideas for its improvement.

17. Describe a situation when you were under pressure in work.

Management bears responsibility. And with responsibility comes pressure. Show the interviewers that you do not crack under pressure, that you can prioritize your work, and will do your best to meet deadlines. Say that the pressure does not have a negative impact on your work and mental health.
You should do all of this while narrating a situation from the past. Remember that your attitude matters, not the particular situation you talk about.
It can be actually something very simple–a key employee missing in work and you had to replace him, a stop line you had to fix immediately, or just a certain production plan you had to deliver in a short time. Show them that you always do your best to manage the work in time, in any given circumstances.

18. What Do You Mean by Affreightment ?

The term affreightment arises from freight. It refers to the amount of money that is paid to a charterer in return for renting his vessel to carry the goods.

19. What Comprises Supply Chain Management?

Supply chain management is incomplete without including collaborative and integrative practices with its channel partners. Suppliers, retailers, wholesalers, distributors, and customers are involved in the success of a supply chain operation.
Supply chain managers must collaborate with suppliers, keep track of demand, integrate the services of wholesalers and distributors, and effectively communicate with everyone involved, including customers, in the process.

20. How Do You Define SKU Keeping in Mind the Supply Chain?

SKU stands for a stock-keeping unit. It is related to the inventory management field. When we say SKU, it refers to a particular item stored in a particular place in the inventory.

21. What Do You Understand by Compliance Labels?

A compliance label for a product is made with due attention to the standardized procedures of the industry associated with the product. It plays a crucial role in import/export where it is in the hands of the government agencies to define and check these label requirements for exported or imported products.

22. What is the Difference between Supply Chain Management and Logistics?

Supply chain management and logistics are two very different processes. While supply chain management is confined to the bigger picture, logistics is comparatively small.
Logistics is all about producing the goods in one organization and distributing them amongst the consumers who demand the goods.
Supply chain management, on the other hand, is a group of organizations that strive to distribute goods in voluminous quantities among their consumers. In this sense, it is a large scale operation involving multiple moving parts.

23. What is the Importance of Logistics?

Logistics is important because if the consumers do not get their desired goods, the whole point of production is invalid. Logistics might seem like an insignificant process that is carried out at the end, but it carries the load of the entire process of production.
Logistics isn’t something that comes into play when the goods are manufactured and ready to be shipped. It is a process that is active throughout the production. In fact, logistics sets into motion even before the production starts. The procurement process of raw materials is the role of logistics.
Moving on, it also takes care of transportation and warehousing. Finally, when it comes to the delivery of goods, everyone is aware of the charm that logistics works in bringing our goods safely — and on time — to us.

24. What are the Activities Carried Out in Logistics?

Logistics operations are mainly confined to three broad categories. This includes collecting goods from the supplier, warehousing, and delivering to intended consumers.
However, that’s just a very vague definition of everything that goes on at the operational level in logistics.
To begin with, the desired resources are picked up from the supplier, and packaged for transportation. This can be via air, sea, or road. At the destination, the goods are cleared of customs and delivered to the warehouse where they are stored.
While at a storage facility, these goods are checked for quality and are grouped accordingly. Details of the inventory are checked for deficits if any.
In case there is a shortage of goods, replenishing is done. Goods are then sent to stores or wholesalers for distribution. Logistics also covers the returns process.
In short, logistics is responsible for procuring goods from suppliers, managing received goods, and facilitating delivery to end customers.

25. Define Advance Shipping Notice.

It is sent to the customer before the delivery. It contains all the information about the shipment of their products. It comprises details related to the carrier of the shipment, when the shipment can be expected, etc.

26. What Do You Understand by Anti-Dumping Duty?

It is an import duty that is levied when the charges of the imported goods are lower than the decided price in the market of the exporter’s country. This results in deficits in the domestic market of the importing country.

27. Can You Explain Less Than Truckload?

“Less than truckload” occurs when the transport owner and shipper enter a contract where the owner is not paid in full for the truck. The price of the shipment is taken into account depending on the weight of the goods and the distance it will travel.

28. Has a shipment to your warehouse ever been unexpectedly delayed? How did you handle the situation?

Shipments may unexpectedly run late. Employers will want to know your process for ensuring this doesn't lead to a large setback in productivity and customer satisfaction. Your answer should feature an actionable plan that keeps customers and suppliers happy during this situation.
Example: "If a delay occurs, I'll reach out to the driver or supplier to learn the reasoning and updated delivery date. Next, I'd check our buffer inventory to see if we ordered any extra items that could replace the delayed ones."

29. How could your skills and experience add value to our business?

Employers often use this question to analyze your strengths and background to demonstrate why you're the best fit for the role. Consider which strengths and expertise made you a strong asset in your previous roles.
Example: "I'd be a great fit for this position because I have advanced communication skills and negotiation abilities, which can be used to build lasting relationships with your clients and suppliers. I can negotiate quality product prices that work well within your company's budget."

30. What would you improve our company's supply chain management processes?

Since you may handle the making, purchasing and shipping of the company's product, the employer will want to know how familiar you are with the company and its items. Conduct research and demonstrate the knowledge you've gained about the company to explain how you'd improve it.
Example: "After reading various customer reviews, I've learned that customers are pleased with your quality products, but sometimes the shipments seem to arrive later than expected. I'd adopt new supply chain management systems to speed up production and deliveries."

31. Describe A Time You Failed In This Role And The Lesson You Learned?

We saw a spike in demand for our items at one time. Because there were so many orders coming in, I had to attend to them quickly. However, I overestimated the cost during the rash, and we lost money. It came as a shock to me since I had not anticipated it, but I put all my procedures into action and was able to retrieve the lost funds. When it came to managing orders, I always learned to remain vigilant and never hurry.
In another instance, I had a supplier that was delinquent on deliveries. I contacted our suppliers to understand the issue better and expedite the delivery of products to us. I told our employees to assemble and pack the items for delivery as soon as they arrived.

32. Share With Us Your Greatest Achievement

I worked at a local bike store throughout high school. While I was there, I discovered that GGL was based in the Twin Cities, and several of my friends subsequently came to work here. I figured I’d work here for a summer or two after college to get some bikes, but it grew into more after I got started. There were several opportunities to engage in process improvement initiatives in the warehouse, which sparked my interest in this subject. I was engaged in a project that saved the firm more than $100,000 per year while working at the warehouse. These initiatives appeal to me, and the leadership has become supportive of my efforts to learn and improve. I worked in several warehouse roles before settling into a warehouse analyst position. I eventually bumped across a buying manager at a workplace function who inquired about my plans after graduation. He asked me to assist him in developing a supply chain role, so we worked together to create it. I applied for new employment after graduation and was hired.

33. What is Dead Weight Tonnage?

The difference in a ship’s laden weight and unladen weight is known as dead weight tonnage. What this means is, that the weight of all items on the ship is taken into account except for the weight of the ship.

34. What Do You Mean by Blanket Way Bill?

A Way Bill containing two or more consignments of freight is known as Blanket Way Bill.

35. What are the Main Issues Transportation Faces During Warehousing?

The process of warehousing is not as simple as we think. It suffers from tracking and communication issues. A warehouse’s safety is a major deciding factor for storing goods.
Any delays are accounted for and the costs incurred are also sometimes concerning.

36. During Warehouse Transportation, What are the Safety Points to be Taken Care of?

Warehouse transportation is not the safest process out there. It comes with its own set of risks. One must always be careful enough to dodge them.
Sharp objects must be cleared off right away.
Any loose flooring or those that can cause tripping should be taken care of.
Spills should also be taken care of right away.
Fire exits should be functional.
Proper use of garbage cans should be encouraged.
Items should be placed in their designated spots.
Cords and wires must have a safe separate space away from the walking space.

37. Describe your process for finding suppliers for a 100-piece product

Employers may ask situational questions to understand your process for finding suppliers for larger products. Explain a process you've used in the past when gathering materials for a large product.
Example: "I would work with our product team to determine which supplies we need. I'd search our supply chain management system to determine if we already conduct business with existing suppliers who carry similar materials. I'd reach out to them to ensure they can provide us with the necessary quantity and quality we're looking for at a reasonable price."

38. What has been your most challenging moment in a supply chain role? How did you resolve it?

Hiring managers typically ask this question to learn how you'll handle difficult situations in the workplace. Answer this question honestly by describing a time when you were assigned a challenging task and your process for resolving it.
Example: "I once had a supplier who was running behind on shipments. I reached out to our suppliers to better understand the problem and to get the materials shipped to us as soon as possible. Once they arrived, I instructed our team to assemble and prepare the products for shipping right away."

39. Explain how you'd gather supplies and materials for this (item)

This question will give hiring managers an idea of your process for analyzing a product and locating the materials needed to create it. For example, they may ask about a pen. Remain clear and descriptive in your answer.
Example: "I'd first review each part of the pen to determine what makes it function properly. I'd work directly with our product team to gather each part that makes up the pen, like the ink and springs. Finally, I'd negotiate with suppliers to find items that meet the products' quality needs at a reasonable price."

40. What planning process do you use to manage and track products and materials?

Employers want to ensure their team members are well-organized and aware of production schedules. Use this question to demonstrate the strategy you follow to keep up with deliveries and shipment times.
Example: "I use a master production schedule system to remain updated on a product's progress. The system details how many items to produce, the materials needed for every product, expected shipment dates and customer delivery dates."

41. What are the Main Challenges Related to the Supply Chain that Companies are Currently Facing?

The supply chain is a vast and fruitful field, brimming with immense opportunities for exploration and experimentation. In the present competitive market, companies that do not invest in supply chain management end up paying a hefty price.
These companies fail to take into account many crucial factors like:
Rising costs throughout the supply chain.
Consumer demands for improved delivery speed and customer satisfaction.
Volatile risks in the supply chain such as market fluctuations, trade disputes, etc.
The complexities of risk and cost management.
Although an interviewer might not ask each one of these questions to you during the supply chain interview, we hope this article gave you a good idea of what you should expect.

42. What are the key elements in inventory planning and management?

Many interview questions for supply chain officers are related to inventory, which is one of the most important ones. Hiring managers expect you to make significant decisions about the number of items to order and how frequently to order. You can explain how to increase profits effectively by maintaining enough inventory levels. Inventory and supply levels can be maintained by reviewing inventory numbers and product orders for the last few months. You can use this data to know how many products to order for the next months.

43. How can a supply chain manager’s skills and experience add value to the business?

Employers often use these types of supply chain manager interview questions to assess candidates’ strengths and backgrounds. They determine whether the candidate is the best fit for the role or not based on the answer to this question. A supply chain manager’s negotiation abilities and communication skills can help develop long-term relationships with suppliers and clients. These skills help them to negotiate quality product rates that fit well in the company’s budget.

44. What is the difference between SCM and Supply Chains?

It is one of the tricky supply chain officer interview questions and answers. A supply chain denotes the network of companies, individuals, activities, resources, and technologies used to manufacture and sell products or services. It begins with the raw materials’ delivery from a supplier to a manufacturer and terminates with the finished product’s delivery to the consumer.
SCM supervises every touchpoint of a company’s service or product, from creation to the final sale. Several places in the supply chain can add value or incur expenses to a business. An effective SCM can decrease costs, boost revenues, and improve a company’s bottom line.

45. What are the types of Supply Chain Models?

(i) Continuous Flow Model: It depends on a manufacturer producing the same good repeatedly and expecting customer demand will small variation. (ii) Agile Model: It prioritizes flexibility according to the company’s requirements. (iii) Fast Model: It prioritizes the fast turnover of a product with a small life cycle. (iv)Flexible Model: It denotes that production can easily be increased or decreased. (v) Efficient Model: It uses equipment most efficiently in addition to handling inventory and efficiently processing orders. (vi)Custom Model: It is frequently used by highly specialized industries (like automobile manufacturers) with extraordinary technical requirements.
Before appearing for an interview, you must prepare for such basic supply chain questions.

46. What Is Supply Chain Management’s Overarching Goal?

Supply chain management aims to improve the efficiency of an organization’s operations and increase production. Companies strive to meet people’s needs by providing the right items on time while profitably.
While streamlining the whole process, supply chain managers guarantee that waste is reduced and that everyone’s time is used productively, allowing the company to save money. All these minor objectives contribute to the aim of achieving efficiency.

47. How Does Logistics Play A Part In Supply Chain Management?

Logistics refers to tracking the movement of products and services from one location to their final destination. People used the word logistics to describe the movement of equipment to ground-based military forces.
However, logistics is more than simply a term in today’s world. It may quickly change form to match the needs of an organization. It entails more than just providing finished items to customers.
Warehousing, coordinating outward and incoming transportation, preparing to fulfill demand, and handling commodities are all responsibilities of the logistics department. They’re also in charge of inventory control, transportation, and order fulfillment.

48. Do you have experience with downstream and upstream production processes?

An upstream production process involves gathering materials needed to produce a product. Downstream production is the process of using these items to sell a final product. Describe your knowledge of these industry terms and how you use them on the job.
Example: "When handling the upstream process, I collaborate closely with our team to determine the materials needed to obtain quality items for our products. During downstream production, I work with our customer service teams to determine which improvements to add to our product line."

49. What's your process for handling cost efficiency through strong relationships with suppliers?

Supply chain employees typically work closely with suppliers to build lasting relationships. Use this question to show employers how you use these relationships to secure reasonable prices on products.
Example: "I work to maintain ongoing relationships with suppliers by constantly updating them on our company's needs and preferences. This polite and professional relationship with clients allows us to build mutual trust that leads to reasonable pricing on quality supplies."

50. What Are Logistics Activities Performed At The Operational Level?

The three main tasks are pick-up from the supplier, storage or warehousing, and distribution to the final client as needed. The following sub-activities are included in the overall operations:
obtaining the items from the provider
air, sea, and road transportation
clearance through customs
the items’ delivery
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Sorting the merchandise
inventory control
restocking of inventory
the dispersion of shops
handling of returned shipments

51. Explain The Payment Cycle Procedure?

Collecting and managing the raw materials required to manufacture a product or provide a service is known as procure to pay (P2P). It encompasses the transactional flow of data supplied to a supplier and the data around the actual order fulfillment and payment for the goods or service. According to the Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply, procuring to pay should be a smooth procedure from order to payment. Technology may aid this procedure.
A procure-to-pay software system aims to streamline procedures by implementing efficiency controls. For example, to impose purchase controls, the program may cross-reference purchasing budgets to guarantee adherence to pre-defined spending limitations. If authorized, a request that fell within pre-defined parameters would be routed for approval programmatically, turned into a purchase order, and promptly sent to the proper supplier.
A sophisticated procure-to-pay system can collect invoice and payment data from a general ledger, ERP, or CRM system, take transaction data from banks, vendors, shippers, and other outside sources, and reconcile complicated and numerous supplier statements to payments and goods received.

52. Tell Me About A Recent Book Or Article On Supply Chain Management That You Read And What You Learned From It.

I just read an article about how artificial intelligence and big data are being used to improve demand and route planning accuracy using predictive analytics. This innovative approach can significantly increase supply chain management efficiency by guaranteeing that items are delivered on time.

53. How are supply chain management and ethics related?

You can include such unique questions when preparing for supply chain questions. Ethics has become a significant facet of supply chain management, and led to the generation of a set of principles known as supply chain ethics. Investors and consumers are influenced by how companies manufacture their products and handle their workforce. Consequently, companies respond by introducing measures to control waste and reduce environmental impact.

54. Will supply chain management be automated?

It’s implausible that supply chains will be fully automated currently. They might be fully automated in the future. Currently, many businesses prioritize implementing new automotive technologies for tedious and manual tasks. Although supply chains are trending towards an automated future, there’s a long way to go. The early adopters can benefit the most by surpassing digitally immature competitors via supply chain automation. These types of supply chain questions can help predict the supply chain management’s future.

55. What type of forecasting method do you prefer?

Employers will ask this question to understand your approach to accurately forecasting materials and product inventory amounts. Explain the forecasting method you've used in the past that has provided you with significant results, what you like about it and why you prefer it over others.
Example: "I've found the best results from demand forecasting. I'll take the demand data of products to determine what we'll need in upcoming months according to factors like items placed in a customer's cart, purchase orders and revenue gained from that product."

56. How Do You Get Ready For The Holiday Season Ahead Of Time?

I’ll go through the sales figures from previous Christmas seasons and acquire more supplies and materials for the things in great demand. After that, I’ll call our transportation teams to give them an overview of what to anticipate in terms of shipping and delivery in the following months.

How do you shortly define the following:

57. What is inventory management?

Inventory management is the process of managing inventory levels to ensure that there is enough inventory to meet customer demand while minimizing excess inventory.

58. What is demand planning?

Demand planning is the process of forecasting customer demand for a product or service.

59. What is capacity planning?

Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed to meet customer demand.

60. What is lead time?

Lead time refers to the time it takes for a product or service to be delivered from the point of order to the point of delivery.

61. What is a bill of materials (BOM)?

A bill of materials (BOM) is a list of all the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts, and quantities needed to manufacture a finished product.

62. What is a purchase order (PO)?

A purchase order (PO) is a document issued by a buyer to a seller that indicates types, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services.

63. What is supplier relationship management (SRM)?

Supplier relationship management (SRM) is the process of managing relationships with suppliers to maximize value and minimize risk.

64. Supply chain visibility (SCV)?

SCV is one of the more valuable supply chain management key terms because it offers companies and their customers more timely, actionable information about their supply chain orders.

65. Supply chain planning (SCP)?

SCP is used to balance supply and demand, forecast future needs and ensure adequate supply to meet those needs.

66. Value chain?

A value chain encompasses all the individual steps that are taken to create a marketable product.

67. Just-in-time (JIT)?

JIT is an inventory optimization method where every batch of items arrives ”just in time” to fulfil the needs of the next stage, which could be either a shipment or a production cycle.

68. Total cost of ownership (TCO)?

TCO is a financial estimate that helps buyers and managers determine direct and indirect costs of a product or system.

69. Safety stock Safety?

stock is extra inventory that companies keep on hand to protect against unexpected demand or supply chain disruptions.

70. Bullwhip effect?

The bullwhip effect refers to the phenomenon where small changes in consumer demand can cause large fluctuations in demand further up the supply chain.

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